The crown of England is the oldest surviving political institution in Europe. In Britain itself, the relationship between monarchy and people created the English national identity and shaped Scotland and Wales. This was also the time that the English Civil War struck ndash; royalist supporters of Charles I and parliamentarians waged long and bloody battles spawning numerous Protestant sects across Britain.
As regards the first matter, during the pontificate of Urban IIseveral strides were taken. In addition to reforming the papal administration in Rome into a household government, he created the first version of the Curia. It was both a judicial institution and a council of advisers.
It consisted of Rome's most prominent clergy and cardinals, and its functions were divided between 1 as body of advisers; 2 a judicial court; 3 a legal-theological forum to decide points of Church doctrine. Thus, the central Papacy's power was built up at the expense of episcopal bishops, councils, and synods; 4 the cardinals also served as Papal legates, and were sent all over Latin Christendom to monitor epsicopal affairs and make sure the Pope's writ was executed.
An extension of this--which also aided the cause of Papal power versus episcopal officers--was the insistence on clerical immunity from ducal courts, and that clergy were not subject to lay political authority. What emerged from such positions was a parallel ecclesiastical court system, to which laymen could refer certain types of cases.
In this hierarchy, the archdeacon's court was inferior to that of a bishop, and the archbishop's courts were increasingly closely supervised by the Papal Curia in Rome, to which there was right of appeal.
Canon law was the corpus of reference, and in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, pride of place was held by Gratian's Concordia Discordantum, which had reconciled earlier bodies of canon law. The competency of these courts initially focused on A crimes involving churchmen; B disputes in the differing levels of the court; C marriage, divorce, and legitimacy of children; D the validity of oaths and certain acts of business; and E morality matters, which even touched upon witchcraft.
Given both their topics and procedures, they soon became popular with laymen--the Church courts were more rational and less brutal than their lay counterparts. This was good for the Papacy, in that court procedures involved a fee, and funds started flowing into episcopates as well as Rome.
Additional fees were levied during clerical visits to Rome, ascension to bishoprics or archbishoprics, as well as other events, such as weddings, baptisms, etc. By the second half of the twelfth century, then, the material bases of the Church had expanded tremendously, and were accompanied by Crusade taxes by the end of the century.
It was reflected in political power. Later, Innocent IV 54 was the German King's chief nemesis, making sure that his power in central and northern Italy was never secure, and weakening Frederick's successor. Popes were able to compel secular rulers to leave Europe on Crusades, and even went so far as to excommunicate entire realms.
It is indicative of the changing face of the Papacy that while popes from were mostly from a monastic, even Cluniac background, after this period, they become much more juridical in origin.
Most were experts in canon law, and councils, as well as Curia meetings became increasingly concerned with legal and technical matters.
During these same years, processes at the center were accompanied by a certain spiritual crisis on the local level throughout Western Europe.
The increased power of the Papacy, and its more worldly concerns, both distracted attention from spiritual work, and decreased the connection between clergy and laymen.
The consequences expressed themselves in four central ways: In terms of monasticism, the great Cluniac monastic reform movement had been a phenomenal tenth and eleventh-century success.
Not only had the original monastery grown, but daughter houses had spread throughout Europe into Germany. In fact, it had been too successful.
Organizationally it was at its peak, and influential abbots and priors were the princes of the Church having secular rulers' ears. The problem was that the spiritual tenor was declining as worldly esteem and wealth increased.May 30, · The power of the monarchy definitely increased in the Three Kingdoms (England, Scotland and Ireland) after the end of the Middle Ages, but in different ways.
The story of the increase of monarchial power in Ireland is a simple case of increased political will and a concomitant increase in both colonization and raw force (i.e.
soldiers) at the. Papal monarchy is a paradox, not a fact. Christianity has always drawn a firm line between church and state; yet the language of papal monarchy is inescapable in the high Middle Ages. Both the kings and the popes have an extremely high amount of power.
The pope has the power of the people, for many people that lived in the middle ages were devoted to their religion, an in this case the pope. The kings were the supreme rulers of their kingdoms.
They often won their rightful place on the throne by winning tough battles. The Monarchy vs. the Church in Medieval England During the Middle Ages. who was the absolut monarch. Alfred defeated the Danes and their king. two different Christian churches appeared: the Orthodox Christian Church in the east and the Roman Catholic Church in the west.
The French Monarchy will have more power than England because it doesn't have a Magna Carta telling them what they can and can't do How did medieval universities advance learning by allowing people other than the clergy to come and learn. Both the kings and the popes have an extremely high amount of power. The pope has the power of the people, for many people that lived in the middle ages were devoted to their religion, an in this case the pope. The kings were the supreme rulers of their kingdoms. They often won their rightful place on the throne by winning tough battles. In the Early Middle Ages, monarchy was sometimes absolute, meaning the king could do whatever he wanted. Early on, kings were often elected from the ruling clan, a practice that continued in the.
and local. Documents Similar To The Monarchy vs The Church in. In the Early Middle Ages, monarchy was sometimes absolute, meaning the king could do whatever he wanted. Early on, kings were often elected from the ruling clan, a practice that continued in the.
The middle ages were a turbulent time marked by wars in which millions of lives were lost. The church played a strong and controversial role during these tumultuous times.
The church was a universal, all encompassing institution, with the Roman Catholic Church permeating every aspect of societal life.