Definition[ edit ] Most teenage pregnancies in developed countries involve legal adults. It violates the rights of girls, with life-threatening consequences in terms of sexual and reproductive health, and poses high development costs for communities, particularly in perpetuating the cycle of poverty. The risk of maternal death for girls under age 15 in low and middle income countries is higher than for women in their twenties. Life outcomes for teenage mothers and their children vary; other factors, such as poverty or social supportmay be more important than the age of the mother at the birth.
Definition[ edit ] The age of the mother is determined by the easily verified date when the pregnancy ends, not by the estimated date of conception.
It violates the rights of girls, with life-threatening consequences in terms of sexual and reproductive health, and poses high development costs for communities, particularly in perpetuating the cycle of poverty.
The risk of maternal death for girls under age 15 in low and middle income countries is higher than for women in their twenties. Life outcomes for teenage mothers and their children vary; other factors, such as poverty or social supportmay be more important than the age of the mother at the birth.
Many solutions to counteract the more negative findings have been proposed. Teenage parents who can rely on family and community support, social services and child-care support are more likely to continue their education and get higher paying jobs as they progress with their education.
This means not focusing on changing the behaviour of girls but addressing the underlying reasons of adolescent pregnancy such as poverty, gender inequality, social pressures and coercion.
Teenage pregnancy puts young women at risk for health issues, economic, social and financial issues. United States and United Kingdom had some of the highest teenage pregnancy rates in the developed world. Teen mothers are more likely to drop out of high school.
Less than one third of teenage mothers receive any form of child support, vastly increasing the likelihood of turning to the government for assistance.
For instance, long-term studies by Duke University economist V. Joseph Hotz and colleagues, published infound that by age 35, former teen mothers had earned more in income, paid more in taxes, were substantially less likely to live in poverty and collected less in public assistance than similarly poor women who waited until their 20s to have babies.
Women who became mothers in their teens—freed from child-raising duties by their late 20s and early 30s to pursue employment while poorer women who waited to become mothers were still stuck at home watching their young children—wound up paying more in taxes than they had collected in welfare.
Many teen parents do not have the intellectual or emotional maturity that is needed to provide for another life. The children of teen mothers are more likely to be born prematurely with a low birth weight, predisposing them to many other lifelong conditions.
The worldwide incidence of premature birth and low birth weight is higher among adolescent mothers. That is because the Latino population is the least uninsured group in the Unites States  Young mothers who are given high-quality maternity care have significantly healthier babies than those who do not.
Many of the health-issues associated with teenage mothers appear to result from lack of access to adequate medical care. Young mothers and their babies are also at greater risk of contracting HIV.
The maternal mortality rate can be up to five times higher for girls aged 10—14 than for women aged 20— Illegal abortion also holds many risks for teenage girls in areas such as sub-Saharan Africa.
Obstructed labour is normally dealt with by Caesarean section in industrialized nations ; however, in developing regions where medical services might be unavailable, it can lead to eclampsiaobstetric fistulainfant mortalityor maternal death.
In the Indian subcontinent, early marriage and pregnancy is more common in traditional rural communities than in cities. Many teenagers are not taught about methods of birth control and how to deal with peers who pressure them into having sex before they are ready.
Many pregnant teenagers do not have any cognition of the central facts of sexuality. In societies where children are set to work at an early age it is economically attractive to have many children.
Countries with low levels of teenagers giving birth accept sexual relationships among teenagers and provide comprehensive and balanced information about sexuality. One study found that the younger sisters of teen mothers were less likely to emphasize the importance of education and employment and more likely to accept human sexual behaviorparentingand marriage at younger ages; younger brothers, too, were found to be more tolerant of non-marital and early births, in addition to being more susceptible to high-risk behaviors.
Adolescent sexuality In most countries, most males experience sexual intercourse for the first time before their 20th birthday.
Role of drug and alcohol use[ edit ] Inhibition-reducing drugs and alcohol may possibly encourage unintended sexual activity. If so, it is unknown if the drugs themselves directly influence teenagers to engage in riskier behavior, or whether teenagers who engage in drug use are more likely to engage in sex.
Correlation does not imply causation. The drugs with the strongest evidence linking them to teenage pregnancy are alcoholcannabis"ecstasy" and other substituted amphetamines. The drugs with the least evidence to support a link to early pregnancy are opioidssuch as heroinmorphineand oxycodoneof which a well-known effect is the significant reduction of libido — it appears that teenage opioid users have significantly reduced rates of conception compared to their non-using, and alcohol"ecstasy"cannabis, and amphetamine using peers.
Precocious puberty Girls who mature early are more likely to engage in sexual intercourse at a younger age, which in turn puts them at greater risk of teenage pregnancy.
Birth control Adolescents may lack knowledge of, or access to, conventional methods of preventing pregnancy, as they may be too embarrassed or frightened to seek such information.In , the teenage birth rate in the United States was the highest in the developed world, and the teenage abortion rate is also high.
[needs update] In in the U.S., the majority (57%) of teen pregnancies resulted in a live birth, 27% ended in an induced abortion, and 16% in a fetal loss. Each week, the Honolulu Star- Advertiser publishes Oahu statistics for marriage licenses and birth certificates filed with the state Department of Health’s Vital Statistics System.
Between and , the teenage birthrate in the United States declined from a year high of births per 1, females aged to per 1, The 12% drop, welcome news in its own right, is especially heartening because it reverses a 24% increase in the birthrate between and Teen Smoking is Bad - Deaths caused by smoking have reached epidemic proportions.
In the United States alone, , people die annually from smoking-related . Teen Pregnancy in the United States. In , a total of , babies were born to women aged 15–19 years, for a birth rate of per 1, women in this age group.
Teen births continue to decline in the United States, with health officials reporting a 9 percent drop from to Births to to year-olds fell to a historic low of 24 births Founded: Sep 18,