Carotenoid formation is rapid.
Ladies and gentlemen, Three weeks ago I was travelling in central Kenya, meeting smallholder farmers who were growing improved bananas using the tools of modern biotechnology. Their banana plantations were healthy because they had been able to obtain clean tissue culture plantlets from the agricultural research institute rather than transplanting disease-carrying suckers.
One of these farmers, who had just over an acre of land, and children to feed, told me, much to my surprise, that he had once met Dr Norman Borlaug. He had been on a Kenyan delegation to the World Food Prize some years ago, it turned out. His description of the event has stayed in my head ever since.
And yet he achieved more in his lifetime to change the world for the better than any official world leader I can think of for at least the last half-century. That is why the Kenyan smallholder farmer I met remembered meeting Borlaug as one of the greatest moments of his life.
Because he had shaken hands with one of the greatest Plant biotechnology question papers who has ever lived. And we heard similar very moving testimonials last night from farmers here in India for whom Norman Borlaug touched their lives and changed them for the better.
Now, generally I am sceptical of hagiographic tributes, but with Borlaug it would be difficult to exaggerate his positive impact. As M S Swaminathan has put it: When the world was in a serious food crisis one of the godly forms who appeared was Norman Borlaug.
Science for him also meant living alone in the research station he established in Sonora in Mexico, sowing wheat out of season initially by hand with a hoe, with no electricity or clean water, and with a dying child in a hospital far away. How many of us would have worked that hard and made those kinds of sacrifices, even if we had known in advance — as he could not possibly have done — that we would end up saving a billion lives?
As we all know, he and his colleagues succeeded eventually in defeating wheat stem rust for many decades, until the emergence of the resistant race Ug99 at the very end of the last century. A fifth of all our calories come from wheat, and the global harvest is nearly million tonnes per year.
While European wheat growers keep stem rust at bay with liberal applications of fungicide, this is neither ecologically sustainable nor financially desirable over the longer term.
In south and east Asia, meanwhile, both of which produce more wheat than the whole of North America, most growers cannot afford or do not have access to fungicides. Billions of people therefore depend on susceptible wheat varieties that are sitting ducks, waiting for an epidemic of Ug99 to be blown over on the winds from the Middle East and Africa.
He was a lifelong advocate of innovation — and a staunch supporter of biotechnology as the promising new frontier for plant breeding.
You can see why. Because this took so long with only one growing season per year, he established his now-famous shuttle approach between the Mexican highlands and lowlands, in research stations more than a thousand kilometres apart, to squeeze two harvests into each year.Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.
Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi. I think this is very good article, that simplifies even while communicating the wrong direction of rice research. From this experience, and results, it is obvious that India particularly should abandon all efforts towards Golden Rice.
Entranceindia provides pdf download for the years , , , and from Banaras Hindu University PET initiativeblog.com Plant Biotechnology Question paper. Free Agriculture papers, essays, and research papers. Agriculture As An Agriculture Teacher - Not exactly a bad plan, but eventually, I came to realize that the best teachers I ever had were those who had real world experience in their fields before teaching, and considered this fact.
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