This has long been apparent from early catalogs of felt earthquakes and is even more readily discernible in modern seismicity maps, which show instrumentally determined epicentres. It is estimated that 80 percent of the energy presently released in earthquakes comes from those whose epicentres are in this belt. The seismic activity is by no means uniform throughout the belt, and there are a number of branches at various points.
A GDRC compilation of articles on the causes of poverty and related issues. Types of causes of poverty A. Aggregate There are two types of aggregate poverty theory: There is no agreement on which is the correct explanation of most poverty.
Add up all poverty explained by individual theories, and that is equal to total or aggregate poverty. In other words, according to case theories of poverty, individual and aggregate explanations are really the same. According to these theories, aggregate poverty is just the sum of individual poverty.
Poverty is explained by general, economy-wide problems, such as inadequate non-poverty employment opportunities inadequate overall demand macro problems, macro policy low national income Less Developed Country If generic theories are correct, poverty is caused by one set of forces general, economy-wide problems but distributed according to individual theories.
Generic Theories of Poverty A. What difference does it make whether poverty is caused by case or generic causes?
It makes a lot of difference. Suppose somehow we significantly reduce racial discrimination. Will total poverty fall?
Poverty will only be redistributed. Suppose we give poor people effective skill training and compensatory education. What can you do about poverty? If case theories are correct: Address the individual cause of poverty.
For example, if poverty is caused by inadequate skills or education, then the solution is skill training or compensatory education. If poverty is caused by discrimination, then the solution is antidiscrimination policies.
If generic theories are correct: Improve the quantity and quality of jobs. How can you tell which is correct--case or generic theories?
Remember that the things that cause poverty in case theories explain its distribution in generic theories. Because of this, both theories are consistent with the same facts statistics.
Therefore, it is very difficult, maybe impossible, to determine which is correct through direct test. There's some indirect evidence pointing to generic theories: For example, there is the failure of poverty to fall during periods of large training programs, and the failure of poverty to fall with rise in general educational level of population.
Further indirect evidence later on in the course. Most people assume case theories are correct. Micro experience fallacy of composition -- assuming that what's true of the part must be true of the whole.
Poverty scholars study the poor instead of the economy. Antipoverty policy would be too hard expensive if generic theories were true. A desire to help the poor.
If generic theories are true, how can you help the poor? Maxwell School, Syracuse University Acute causes of poverty: The material and human destruction caused by warfare is a major development problem. The drop in average income, while a striking representation of the drop in the well-being of the average Iraqi citizen in the aftermath of the war, fails to capture the broader affects of damages to the infrastructure and social services, such as health care and access to clean water.
People who rely on fruits and vegetables that they produce for household food consumption subsistence farmers often go through cycles of relative abundance and scarcity. For many families that rely on subsistence production for survival, the period immediately prior to harvest is a 'hungry period.
Being familiar with these cycles has enabled development practitioners to anticipate and prepare for periods of acute need for assistance.
Besides the immediate destruction caused by natural events such as hurricanes, environmental forces often cause acute periods of crisis by destroying crops and animals.
Natural disasters such as hurricanes and earthquakes have devastated communities throughout the world.A. A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time. ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence.
Light travels fast. In one second it races around the Earth seven times. Then in a blink of an eye, light reaches the Moon.
Going out to the stars, Astronomers know that by studying Cepheid variables, the fluctuation in brightness of certain stars, we can calculate the star's distance from Earth. A pie chart comparing the seismic moment release of the three largest earthquakes for the hundred-year period from to with that for all earthquakes of magnitudes 8 for the same period.
Notably, the Japan quake would be roughly similar to Sumatra. Harmful effects of earthquakes - Damage to human structures, landslides, fires, flash floods, tsunami. Safety rules to be taken during an Earthquake.
History. Earthquakes sometimes hit cities and kill hundreds of thousands of people.
Most earthquakes happen along the Pacific Ring of Fire but the biggest ones mostly happen in other places. Tectonically active places are places where earthquakes or volcanic eruptions are frequent..
Causes of an earthquake. The scientific study of earthquakes is comparatively new. Until the 18th century, few factual descriptions of earthquakes were recorded, and the natural cause of earthquakes was little understood.
Those who did look for natural causes often reached conclusions that seem fanciful today; one popular.